Foundational Research Articles

Foundational Research Paper 1

The Seattle Longitudinal Study: Relationship Between Personality and Cognition (2006)

A study across the lifetimes (1958-1996) of 4,857 participants

60% showed significant improvement and that cognitive decline is reversible for many

40% returned to their cognitive ability of 14 years earlier

Exercising effects are long lasting and advantageous

This research addressed the question - Can intellectual decline with increasing age be reversed and improved by executive cognitive exercising?

Significant results:

"The cognitive training studies conducted with our longitudinal participants suggested that observed decline in many community dwelling older people is likely to be a function of disuse and is therefore reversible for many."

"...approximately two thirds of the experimental participants showed significant improvement, and about 40% of those who had declined significantly over 14 years were returned to their pre-decline level (Schaie & Willis, 1986; Willis & Schaie, 1986b). Training effects are long-lasting with the trained participants still at an advantage over their controls after 7 and 14 years (Schaie, 1996, 2004; Willis & Schaie, 1994).

Foundational Research Paper 2

Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (2007)

Published study of 524 healthy adults (aged 65 and older)

Assessment indicated a significant possibility of memory and cognitive gains to up to personal age related levels of 10 years earlier

Participants showed significant gains in how they perceived/experienced their memory and cognitive abilities

The effects of the "right kind" of cognitive exercising are long lasting and advantageous to the well being of older adults

This research also addressed the question - Can intellectual decline with increasing age be reversed and improved by executive cognitive exercising?

Significant results:

"The group that engaged in the Posit Science program showed significantly superior gains in standardized, clinical measures of memory equal to approximately 10 years."

"Participants in the program also showed significant gains in how they perceived their memory and cognitive abilities. This included questions of everyday tasks such as remembering names and phone numbers or where they had left their keys as well as communication abilities and feelings of self-confidence.

Dr. Ron Ruff, former President of the National Academy of Neuropsychology, faculty at the University of California at San Francisco. "This clearly demonstrates that if healthy older adults engage in the right kind of cognitive training activities, they can enhance their cognitive abilities. This provides a prescription for what we should do as we age."

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